## Making Tens

Students break numbers apart to make tens.

## landmark / friendly numbers

Students adjust one or both addends to make numbers that are easier and friendlier to use.

## place value

Students break apart each addend according to place value and combine quantities. Students may start combining from the highest value to lowest or lowest to highest value.

## compensation

Student manipulate the numbers into easier, friendlier numbers by removing a specific amount from one addend and adding it to the other addend.

Students keep one addend whole and break one addend into friendlier to use chunks.

## Expanded Algorithm

Students expanded each number according to place value and add. This ensures place value stays at the forefront of addition and explicitly shows what is occurring throughout the algorithm.

## Expanded algorithm

Students begin to place numbers vertically but continue to explicitly show place value throughout the algorithm.

## standard algorithm

Students may use the standard algorithm once they have built their understanding of what is taking place in each step.